This study on how decisions of foreign courts are cited in the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court (hereinafter: FCC) begins with short introductory remarks on the work process of the FCC (I.). It then provides detailed information on how the FCC references decisions of other constitutional courts (II.). Finally, the study will conclude with some summarising remarks (III.). An article by the then President of the FCC Andreas Voßkuhle that was published in 2019 provides further information in German and includes further references.
I. Introductory remarks
All proceedings begin with a written application lodged with the FCC. Which of the two Senates is competent to decide the case generally depends on the type of proceedings. In the case of abstract and specific judicial review proceedings and constitutional complaints, it follows from the relevant area of law and from the provisions of the Basic Law that are claimed to have been violated. In accordance with the FCC’s internal allocation of competences, one Justice will take on the role of Reporting Justice. The Reporting Justice drafts a detailed preparatory report in which they set out the case, analyse it from a legal perspective and propose a conclusion. The legal analysis generally considers the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (hereinafter: ECtHR), the Court of Justice of the European Union (hereinafter: CJEU) and other constitutional courts. Normally, the Reporting Justice is assisted by their judicial clerks. The Senates deliberate on every decision extensively and in camera. The deliberations draw on the Reporting Justice‘s report and proposed conclusion. For various reasons, considerations of comparative law are not always expressly reflected in the reasoning of the decision. Thus, it would be wrong to determine the significance of such considerations solely on the basis of actual references made within the decisions of the FCC.
 Andreas VOSSKUHL: Rechtspluralismus als Herausforderung – Zur Bedeutung des Völkerrechts und der Rechtsvergleichung in der Rechtsprechung des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, (ZaöRV) 2019/3, 481–501.
 See also Susanne BAER: Zum Potenzial der Rechtsvergleichung für den Konstitutionalismus, Jahrbuch des öffentlichen Rechts N.F. (JöR) 2015/63, 389–400.